It is challenging to definitively identify a journal as "predatory," although there are common characteristics of predatory/deceptive publishers such as:
- Peer review may be poor or non-existent.
- Editorial board membership information may be incorrect. Individuals may be listed there without their knowledge or consent.
- Information about publishing costs or article processing charges may be misleading.
- Journals might not be indexed in scholarly literature databases such as PubMed, PsycInfo, Web of Science, or CINAHL. However, a journal's inclusion in a database like PubMed does not preclude it from being predatory.
- Websites might refer to non-standard impact factors or misrepresent where articles are indexed.
- Content might not be digitally preserved.
Aside from doing a Google search for the journal's name and the word predatory, use the Think. Check. Submit checklist to evaluate a journal.